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A graph of a relationship between two variables

Figure 3.18.1 illustrates the two perspectives on what a graph shows us, and the difference between perspectives is in which variable you take as the independent variable and in the flexibility of seeing independent variables on either horizontal or vertical axes. Figure 3.40 shows that even though we start with

We also can see inverse relationships in non-graphical settings. The formula for converting a temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (F°) to a an equivalent temperature in degrees Celsius (C°) is $y = \frac{5}{9}(x ‑ 32)$, where

If we call the original function in Figure 3.18.2

$$f(x) = \frac{5}{9}(x ‑ 32).$$

If we call the end function in Figure 3.18.2

$$g(y) = \frac{9}{5}y + 32.$$

The function

Suppose we start with 82 degrees F, convert it into $y_0$ degrees C, and then convert $y_0$ degrees C back to $x_0$ degrees F? What should $x_0$ be? 82! Indeed, if we convert any temperature

The same will be true about converting from degrees C to degrees F and back to degrees C. After all the converting, we should end with the temperature in degrees C that we start with. We can express this symbolically as $$f(g(y)) = y.$$

Reflection 3.15.1

*h*(*k*(*u*)) =*u*for all values of*u*in the domain of**k****’s independent variable**

**k(**.*h*(*v*)) =*v*for all values of*v*in the domain of*h*’s independent variable

If

If

For $j^{-1}$ to be a function, the function $j$ must satisfy the
criterion that it is . The
function one-to-onej being one-to-one means that every value of
$j$'s independent variable (w) is related to
exactly one value of its dependent variable
(z). |

Figure 3.18.3. Example of the on-ramp that a company has contracted to design and build

The length of the on-ramp will be $$\frac{3π}{2}(120) \space \mathrm{meters},$$ or 180π meters. To think about angle of elevation, imagine that the on-ramp will be straight, making a triangle that is 50 m high and has a hypotenuse of 180π m (Figure 3.18.4).

We know that $\sin(θ) = \frac{50}{180}π$, but we need to know θ, not sin(θ). We need an inverse function for sin(θ). GC has a builtin inverse sine function. It is named asin (pronounced “ay-sine”). “asin” is short for “arcsine”, which itself is shorthand for “the arc (in radians) that produces a sine” of the desired value.

Enter $\mathrm{asin}(\frac{50}{180}π)$ into GC and it will report that $$\mathrm{asin}(\frac{50}{180}π) = 0.088535 \space \text{(to 6 significant digits)}.$$ This means that the sine of an arc whose measure is 0.088535 radians will be $\frac{50}{180}\pi$. So the construction company must build short sections of the on-ramp so that at every point along each section, the section's angle of elevation from horizontal is 0.088535 radians, or 5.072684 degrees. If they do that, their on-ramp of length 180π m will rise 50 m from street level to meet the highway.

The matter of inverse functions of trigonometric functions is tricky, because trigonometric functions are not one-to-one over the domain of their independent variable (Figure 3.18.5).

Figure 3.18.5. GC displays of the graphs of y =

Each function in Figure 3.18.5 has an infinite number of values that produce a value of 0.5. It will therefore not be possible to define an inverse function for any of them. However, we can restrict the domain of each function to an interval over which it is one-to-one. For example, Figure 3.18.6 shows the domain of sine’s independent variable restricted to the interval $-\frac{π}{2}$ to $\frac{π}{2}$. Over this interval, sin(

Figure 3.18.6. Domain of sine’s independent variable restricted to $-\frac{π}{2}\leq x \leq \frac{π}{2}$. Over this interval, f(x)=

The function is one-to-one when independent variable restricted to $-\frac{π}{2} ≤ x ≤\frac{π}{2}$. So sin(

The inverse of sin, called asin, is defined as $$\mathrm{asin}(y) = x$$ such that $\sin(x) = y$. This might seem like a strange definition, but it is not. The graph in Figure 3.14.1 came from $y = \sin(x)$, so our computing devices have a method to compute sin(

We are defining asin conceptually, saying to reverse the process of assigning values to sin(

For the meantime, celebrate the fact that your calculator has a magical button labeled $\sin^{-1}$ and that GC has a magical function named asin.

Reflection 3.15.4

Reflection 3.15.5

.

'The angle from the reference direction (the positive

As illustrated in Figure 3.18.7, if P:(

Points in the second and third quadrants pose a problem. The quotient of point R’s coordinates is the same as the quotient of P’s coordinates, so atan cannot distinguish between points R and P in terms of their direction from the positive

An additional problem arises if a point is on the

A solution to both problems is to define a new function that we will call taninv (tangent inverse). It will have two independent variables—numbers that it will interpret as a point’s

Figure 3.18.8 gives the definition of taninv as it appears in GC (click here for the GC file). The key idea is to pay attention to whether a point’s

- If $x > 0$ and $y > 0$, then atan($y/x$) gives the correct direction (see Figure 3.18.7).
- If $x > 0$ and $y < 0$, then atan$(y/x)$ will give a result between $-\pi/2$ and 0, so add $2\pi$ to give a result between $3\pi/2$ and $2\pi$.
- If $x < 0$, then the direction given by atan($y/x$) is off by a rotation of $\pi$ (see Figure 3.18.7), so add $\pi$ to the value of atan($y/x$).
- If $x = 0$ and $y > 0$, the point is on the
positive
*y*-axis. - If $x = 0$ and $y < 0$, the point is on the
negative
*y*-axis. - You should notice that taninv(0,0) is undefined. This makes sense because the point (0,0) does not have a direction from (0,0).

- Enter $y = \sin(x), 0 ≤ x < 2\pi$ into GC. The point $(1.2, 0.9320391)$ is on the graph of $y = \sin(x)$. To what point on the graph of $y = \sin(\sqrt{x})$ is $(1.2, 0.9320391)$ shifted? Justify your answer.
- Enter $y = \sin(\sqrt{x}), x ≥ 0$ into GC. The point $(6, 0.6381576)$ is on its graph. What point on the graph of $y = \sin(x)$ is shifted to the point $(6, 0.6381576)$ on the graph of $y = \sin(\sqrt{x})$? Justify your answer.
- Enter $y = \cos(x)$ into GC. The point $(0.8, 0.69670671)$ is on the graph of $y = \cos(x)$. What point on the graph of $y = \cos(3x - 2)$ is it shifted to? Justify your answer.
- Enter $y = \sec(x)$ in GC. This will display a graph of the secant function. Examine its graph. How could you restrict its independent variable to an interval so that sec is one-to-one over that interval? There is more than one way to do this; try to make it symmetric around 0 or as closely tied to 0 as possible.
- Enter $y = \csc(x)$ in GC. This will display a graph of the cosecant function. Examine its graph. How could you restrict its independent variable to an interval so that csc is one-to-one over that interval? There is more than one way to do this; try to make it symmetric around 0 or as closely tied to 0 as possible.
- Enter the definition of taninv (Figure 3.18.8) in GC. To do this, type “\taninv\ ctrl-9 x , y =” to start the definition. Type ctrl-shift-A to make the multipart definition. Type ctrl-shift-A to add a new line to the definition. Test your definition with coordinates having directions that you know.
- After completing Exercise 3.18.6, enter taninv(0,0). GC will reply with “not a number”. This is GC’s way of saying that taninv(0,0) is undefined.
- Why is it reasonable that taninv(0,0) should be undefined? What would it mean were taninv(0,0) = 1?
- What is it about the definition of taninv that keeps GC from giving a value for taninv(0,0)?
- A jet car will try for a new world speed record. Your job is to videotape the car as it makes its run. You can program your motorized camera tripod with a function to aim the camera in particular directions at particular moments in time. The car will approach your station at a speed of 972 $\mathrm{\frac{km}{hr}}$. Your camera will start when the car breaks a laser beam 10 km away going full speed. The tripod will be 200 m from nearest point of the car’s path. Define a function that will aim the camera in the proper direction so that it remains pointed at the car as it travels past your camera and beyond.
- The functions sin and asin are inverse functions. The figure below contains GC’s displays of $y = \sin(\mathrm{asin}(x))$ and $y = \mathrm{asin}(\sin(x))$. Explain why these graphs appear as they do.